The table below presents a brief but comprehensive illustration of the major findings of data collected from the UTAUT Survey Questionnaire and from the Design Thinking Workshops conducted pre online OER Development Course (ODC). These findings address RQ1: According to the Brazilian fundamental education public school teachers, what are the factors that influence their adoption and use of OER in their professional practice?
Most findings are corroborated by extant literature. I am looking forward to the focus groups, which will be conducted in August, 2017 and that may help me answer what kind of TPD would foster OER (and ICT) uptake in this context. It will be a challenge to come up with a good coding scheme. Subsequently, all data will be triangulated so as to extract professional development guidelines for OER use in the context of Brazilian fundamental education public school teachers.
|Factors that drive OER and ICT use||· The potential of ICT and OER use to enhance and supplement lessons improving student engagement and motivation.
· The use of a variety of multimedia resources (i.e., audios, images, videos, music) to complement lessons, tasks or assessments.
· The ability afforded by the use of ICTs and OER for teachers to be up to date in their subject areas in addition to being more aligned with students’ learning needs and different learning styles.
|Factors that hinder OER and ICT||· Need for assistance and support from peers, from the computer teacher of the school or from experts in the field to handle and use digital resources such as ICTs and OER.
· Lack or shortage of personnel to support teachers’ endeavors with technology and digital resources.
· Lack of basic computer skills to carry out tasks such as downloading and embedding offline resources into PowerPoint presentations and navigating a LMS such a Moodle.
· Need for ongoing, long-term TPD that is useful and applicable to teachers’ pedagogical practices. Short-term TPD that focuses on filling an immediate knowledge or skills gap is detrimental to the pedagogical practices of teachers.
· Existing rules and regulations that prohibit access to external sites such as YouTube and the use of mobile devices on school premises curtails and hinders the use of technology for educational purposes.
· *Innovation in this setting is usually top-down and teachers appear to be resistant to it since there are no policies or incentives that enable them to leave their comfort zone.
· Lack of accessibility to local content since English is the predominant language on the Internet.
· Limited knowledge or skills to search for materials on the Internet effectively, particularly material that is openly licensed or OER.
· Limited knowledge or skills to use online translation systems.
· Work overload and low salaries reduce teachers’ motivation to adopt and use new pedagogical practices.
· Lack of leadership vision, a clear plan and core curriculum with specific objectives and policies or initiatives that promote ICT and OER uptake in this setting.
· * Absence of a culture of collaboration (Venturini, 2014).
· Age-related factors and *issues related to attitudes and behaviors appear to seek to preserve the current status quo.
· Lack of equipment (i.e. computers in the classroom, multimedia equipment); obsolete and damaged equipment and unstable and unreliable broadband Internet connection.